magictransistor:

The East Village Other. Celebrating the Decline of Traditional Values. Vol. 6 No. 6. 1971.

magictransistor:

The East Village Other. Celebrating the Decline of Traditional Values. Vol. 6 No. 6. 1971.

magictransistor:

William Blake. Epitome of James Hervey’s Meditations Among the Tombs. 1825

magictransistor:

William Blake. Epitome of James Hervey’s Meditations Among the Tombs. 1825

dynamicafrica:

"African chiefs sentenced to death by the Germans for their role in the Maji Maji rebellion"
The Maji Maji Rebellion, lasting from 1905 to 1907, was an organized uprising initiated by several groups of African communities in the colonized territory of German East Africa against German colonial rule and German policy that forced them to grow cotton for export, profiting the German colonists.
German colonial efforts in east Africa were initiated by the German Colonization Society (yes, they actually had an organization dedicated to colonialist missions) led by an extremely violent and racist man named Karl Peters. In the book “The Origins of Totalitarianism”, it is said that, "[The] African colonial possessions became the most fertile soil for the flowering of what was later to become the Nazi elite". Testimony to the extremely violent nature of German colonialism in parts of Africa.
Peters, who believed Germans to be a superior race and a believer of Social Darwinism, used ideologies relating to völkisch to fuel his ruthless ambitions in German East Africa which included him murdering large segments of local populations who opposed German occupation. This led to him being labelled “Mkono wa Damu,” meaning “Man with Blood on His Hands”, by the local Tanganyika population, where he was governor.
The series of events that led to the Maji Maji uprising stemmed from a system where the Germans began levying head taxes and charging each village with a quota of cotton production through the use of slave labor.
Following a drought in 1905 that threatened the region and the quota imposed against various villages set by the Germans, several communities banded together under the command of a medium named Kinjikitile Ngwale to oppose and resist German colonial policies. Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo and had communicated with the deity Bokera (no substantial information found on Bokera). Through this encouner, Ngwale had put together a concoction - the maji - consisting of castor oil and millet seed, that was said to be able to turn German bullets into water.
Armed with this liquid and their traditional war tools, the united local communities, empowered by Ngwale, went about destroying German-run cotton plants. These communities included various ethnic groups such as the Ngoni, Matumbi, and Ngindo people.
Unfortunately, due to the lack of artillery and firepower in the form of machine guns and canons, the Maji Maji rebels were terribly defeated. Furthermore, German reinforcements were sent from Germany to assist the colonists in their attacks on the anti-colonial fighters.
The German governor of East Africa at the time, Gustav Adolf von Götzen, used famine as a weapon of war, destroying entire villages, burning crops and killing livestock. One of the leaders of the German troops, Captain Wangenheim, wrote to von Götzen saying, “Only hunger and want can bring about a final submission. Military actions alone will remain more or less a drop in the ocean.”
It is estimated that at least 10, 000 casualties and losses were suffered by the Maji Maji rebels, and 15 Europeans and almost 400 Askari’s (local guards employed by the Germans) were the estimated casualties on the colonist’s side.

dynamicafrica:

"African chiefs sentenced to death by the Germans for their role in the Maji Maji rebellion"

The Maji Maji Rebellion, lasting from 1905 to 1907, was an organized uprising initiated by several groups of African communities in the colonized territory of German East Africa against German colonial rule and German policy that forced them to grow cotton for export, profiting the German colonists.

German colonial efforts in east Africa were initiated by the German Colonization Society (yes, they actually had an organization dedicated to colonialist missions) led by an extremely violent and racist man named Karl Peters. In the book “The Origins of Totalitarianism”, it is said that, "[The] African colonial possessions became the most fertile soil for the flowering of what was later to become the Nazi elite". Testimony to the extremely violent nature of German colonialism in parts of Africa.

Peters, who believed Germans to be a superior race and a believer of Social Darwinism, used ideologies relating to völkisch to fuel his ruthless ambitions in German East Africa which included him murdering large segments of local populations who opposed German occupation. This led to him being labelled “Mkono wa Damu,” meaning “Man with Blood on His Hands”, by the local Tanganyika population, where he was governor.

The series of events that led to the Maji Maji uprising stemmed from a system where the Germans began levying head taxes and charging each village with a quota of cotton production through the use of slave labor.

Following a drought in 1905 that threatened the region and the quota imposed against various villages set by the Germans, several communities banded together under the command of a medium named Kinjikitile Ngwale to oppose and resist German colonial policies. Ngwale claimed to be possessed by a snake spirit called Hongo and had communicated with the deity Bokera (no substantial information found on Bokera). Through this encouner, Ngwale had put together a concoction - the maji - consisting of castor oil and millet seed, that was said to be able to turn German bullets into water.

Armed with this liquid and their traditional war tools, the united local communities, empowered by Ngwale, went about destroying German-run cotton plants. These communities included various ethnic groups such as the Ngoni, Matumbi, and Ngindo people.

Unfortunately, due to the lack of artillery and firepower in the form of machine guns and canons, the Maji Maji rebels were terribly defeated. Furthermore, German reinforcements were sent from Germany to assist the colonists in their attacks on the anti-colonial fighters.

The German governor of East Africa at the time, Gustav Adolf von Götzen, used famine as a weapon of war, destroying entire villages, burning crops and killing livestock. One of the leaders of the German troops, Captain Wangenheim, wrote to von Götzen saying, “Only hunger and want can bring about a final submission. Military actions alone will remain more or less a drop in the ocean.”

It is estimated that at least 10, 000 casualties and losses were suffered by the Maji Maji rebels, and 15 Europeans and almost 400 Askari’s (local guards employed by the Germans) were the estimated casualties on the colonist’s side.

magictransistor:

The Padshahnama [ پا د شاه نا مہ‎ ]; Chronicle of the Emperor of the World, Mughal manuscript (1656 - 1657).

melkior:

send hELP

(via uterusfactory)

heteroglossia:

After Hayden Carruth

It is not snow on hills, nor
sleeping silence. Your eardrums
beating softly against another’s cheek,
another’s lips, and softly beating.
Nor is it the garden laid to rest there:
the backyard you won’t see again,
the piles left. Weeds. A flannel shirt
buried. Stuff of the…

magictransistor:

Joan Miró, Retrat IV (Portrait IV), 1938.

magictransistor:

Joan Miró, Retrat IV (Portrait IV), 1938.

nevver:

Sonic youth, Maria Rubinke

(Source: facebook.com)

fightingforanimals:

Zoos Drive Animals Crazy; Fun for People, but Not for Animals

In the mid-1990s, Gus, a polar bear in the Central Park Zoo, alarmed visitors by compulsively swimming figure eights in his pool, sometimes for 12 hours a day. He stalked children from his underwater window, prompting zoo staff to put up barriers to keep the frightened children away from his predatory gaze. Gus’s neuroticism earned him the nickname “the bipolar bear,” a dose of Prozac, and $25,000 worth of behavioral therapy. 

Gus is one of the many mentally unstable animals featured in Laurel Braitman’s new book, Animal Madness: How Anxious Dogs, Compulsive Parrots, and Elephants in Recovery Help Us Understand Ourselves. The book features a dog that jumps out of a fourth floor apartment, a shin-biting miniature donkey, gorillas that sob, and compulsively masturbating walruses.* Much of the animal madness Braitman describes is caused by humans forcing animals to live in unnatural habitats, and the suffering that ensues is on display most starkly in zoos. “Zoos as institutions are deeply problematic,” Braitman told me. Gus, for example, was forced to live in an enclosure that is 0.00009 percent of the size his range would have been in his natural habitat. “It’s impossible to replicate even a slim fraction of the kind of life polar bears have in the wild,” Braitman writes.

Many animals cope with unstimulating or small environments through stereotypic behavior, which, in zoological parlance, is a repetitive behavior that serves no obvious purpose, such as pacing, bar biting, and Gus’ figure-eight swimming. Trichotillomania (repetitive hair plucking) and regurgitation and reingestation (the practice of repetitively vomiting and eating the vomit) are also common in captivity. According to Temple Grandin and Catherine Johnson, authors of Animals Make Us Human, these behaviors, “almost never occur in the wild.” In captivity, these behaviors are so common that they have a name: “zoochosis,” or psychosis caused by confinement.

The disruption of family or pack units for the sake of breeding is another stressor in zoos, especially in species that form close-knit groups, such as gorillas and elephants. Zoo breeding programs, which are overseen by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ Animal Exchange Database, move animals around the country when they identify a genetically suitable mate. Tom, a gorilla featured in Animal Madness, was moved hundreds of miles away because he was a good genetic match for another zoo’s gorilla. At the new zoo, he was abused by the other gorillas and lost a third of his body weight. Eventually, he was sent back home, only to be sent to another zoo again once he was nursed back to health. When his zookeepers visited him at his new zoo, he ran toward them sobbing and crying, following them until visitors complained that the zookeepers were “hogging the gorilla.” While a strong argument can be made for the practice of moving animals for breeding purposes in the case of endangered species, animals are also moved because a zoo has too many of one species. The Milwaukee Zoo writes on its website that exchanging animals with other zoos “helps to keep their collection fresh and exciting.” 

Drugs are another common treatment for stereotypic behavior. “At every zoo where I spoke to someone, a psychopharmaceutical had been tried,” Braitman told me. She explained that pharmaceuticals are attractive to zoos because “they are a hell of a lot less expensive than re-doing your $2 million exhibit or getting rid of that problem creature.” But good luck getting some hard numbers on the practice. The AZA and the Smithsonian National Zoo declined to be interviewed for this article, and many zookeepers sign non-disclosure agreements. Braitman also found the industry hushed on this issue, likely because “finding out that the gorillas, badgers, giraffes, belugas, or wallabies on the other side of the glass are taking Valium, Prozac, or antipsychotics to deal with their lives as display animals is not exactly heartwarming news.” We do know, however, that the animal pharmaceutical industry is booming. In 2010, it did almost $6 billion in sales in the United States.

Source

(via airavana)

Was laughing out loud this morning.

angelrfoss:

Miquiztli en Prepa 9.

angelrfoss:

Miquiztli en Prepa 9.

(via tumblexico)

until-theskyturnsgreen:

Raymond Depardon, Glasgow 1980s

(via tarkovskian)

anaircatarino:

The weather in Edinburgh is terribly unpredictable… And sometimes haar (aka coastal fog) slowly takes over its streets, making us forget that it’s summer and that we should all be drinking caipirinhas outside!

(via youknowyourescottishwhen)

vintageanchorbooks:

Cormac McCarthy was born Charles McCarthy in Providence, Rhode Island on this day in 1933.

“You never know what worse luck your bad luck has saved you from.”
Cormac McCarthy, No Country for Old Men

(via tarkovskian)

oximoronga:

No tengo palabras para lo mucho que me gustas 

Is it weird that I want to send this to someone I like?